UK’s F-35B fighter jets are now cleared for take-off from the Royal Navy’s aircraft carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth after they passed land-based ski-ramp trials.
This was announced by UK defence minister Harriett Baldwin who spoke on Tuesday before the House of Commons Defence Select Committee.
“Successful ski-ramp trials mean the F-35 is cleared to fly from the carrier as the momentum continues for this game-changing jet,” Baldwin said. “This milestone comes as our pilots and planes prepare to return from the States, ready for next year’s unforgettable flight trials from the deck of the nation’s new flagship.”
One of the other questions addressed at the Defence Select Committee were concerns raised in a Times report which said the UK F-35Bs would be too heavy to land vertically on HMS Queen Elizabeth under full load. During the hearing, Lockheed Martin UK CEO, Peter Ruddock assured MPs that the F-35B was capable of landing vertically with a full internal weapon and fuel load.
The UK currently has 12 F-35 jets out in the United States where they are being tested ahead of flight trials from the Royal Navy’s 65,000 tonne carrier, HMS Queen Elizabeth, next year. Two more aircraft are set to be delivered by the end of the year.
During today’s Select Committee session, the Defence Minister announced that the Integrated Test Force,, has now successfully completed ski ramp trials. That milestone clears the aircraft for take-off from the deck of the Carrier.
Speaking about the jet, Squadron Leader Andy Edgell, part of the F-35 Integrated Test Force which includes five British pilots, said: “The launch of the F35s from the HMS Queen Elizabeth is a once in a generation historical event. To be the first to fly off the carrier, to have a front row seat, would be an absolute privilege. It wouldn’t just be about the pilot – there are hundreds of people who have been working tirelessly behind the scenes to make this happen and the honour will be theirs too.”
There are already 150 UK personnel out in the US working with the jets.
The new home of 617 squadron, RAF Marham, continues to build towards the arrival of the jets next year, moving a step closer earlier this month when the runway intersection resurfacing was completed. 617 Squadron will be the first operational British F-35 unit.
US Navy aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71) is to start its deployment on October 6, getting underway from San Diego together with guided-missile cruiser USS Bunker Hill (CG 52).
Theodore Roosevelt, the flagship of Carrier Strike Group (CSG) 9, and Bunker Hill will join USS Halsey (DDG 97), USS Sampson (DDG 102) and USS Preble (DDG 88) for a routine deployment.
“The U.S. Navy carrier strike group is the most versatile, capable force at sea,” said Rear Adm. Steve Koehler, commander of CSG 9. “After nearly a year of training and integration exercises, the entire team is ready as a warfighting force and ready to carry out the nation’s tasking.”
Bunker Hill was commissioned into service in September 1986. It is the second United States warship to bear the name, the first being an Essex class aircraft carrier that was built during WWII. Her last deployment ended with her return to San Diego in June 2015.
The strike group will deploy with approximately 7,500 Sailors and Marines and will focus on maritime security operation and theater security cooperation efforts in both U.S. 7th and 5th Fleet areas of operation.
This is the first time Theodore Roosevelt is departing its new homeport of San Diego after completing an unprecedented three-carrier hull swap and around-the-world deployment in 2015. The carrier was previously based at Naval Station Norfolk.
Royal Fleet Auxiliary ship RFA Tiderace has reached UK waters after getting underway almost two months ago from Okpo, South Korea, where she was built by Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME).
The second of four Tide-class ships started her voyage on August 3 and arrived in Falmouth in the morning of September 25. Now that she is in the UK, the 39,000-tonne RFA Tiderace will begin a program of customization which will see her receive armor, self-defense weaponry and communications systems.
RFA Tiderace is expected to undergo around four months of customization before beginning a round of final sea trials before entering service next year. Meanwhile, lead ship in the class RFA Tidespring is expected to finish final sea trials in the coming weeks and enter service before the end of this year.
The 39,000-tonne Tide-class ships can carry up to 19,000 cubic meters of fuel and 1,400 cubic meters of fresh water in support of Royal Navy operations all over the world. They have been designed to support the new Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carriers, the first of which, HMS Queen Elizabeth, arrived in Portsmouth last month.
The Tide Class has a flight deck able to accommodate the large Chinook helicopter and offer significant improvements over previous RFA tankers such as double hulls and greater environmental protection measures.
ATLANTIC OCEAN (NNS) — The Nimitz-Class aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) became one of the few ships in the fleet to trap and launch the F-35C Lightning II, Sept. 3.
The “Grim Reapers” of Strike Fighter Squadron 101 (VFA 101), from Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, are the training squadron for the F-35C.
“The F-35C is still in a testing phase, so it is not fully operational yet,” said Lt. Cmdr. Chris Karapostoles, a pilot assigned to VFA 101. “We are the training squadron for the F-35C, so we are onboard this ship conducting our carrier qualification training, qualifying pilots, landing signal officers and maintenance crews.”
The launching and recovering of the F-35Cs presented an opportunity for the crew of Abraham Lincoln to work with a new aircraft and play a role in the development of this new fighter jet.
F-35C testing aboard the USS Dwight D. Eisenhower, October 2 2016
“Being part of the primary flight control team for the landing and launching of the F-35Cs was such a unique experience,” said Aviation Boatswain’s Mate (Handling) Airman Mariana Monima. “The F-35Cs are so amazing and powerful. I feel privileged to have been a part of this historic event.”
According to the F-35 Lightning II Pax River Integrated Test Force, the F-35C should reach its initial operational capacity in 2018.
“I love the F-35C,” said Karapostoles. “Compared to other jets it’s more powerful and really just a beast. Some of the controls are different, which can take a little bit of getting used to, but that’s what we have training like this for.”
According to the Joint Strike Fighter Fleet Integration Office, the F-35C will introduce next generation strike-fighter aircraft capabilities to the Navy Carrier Air Wings, enabling the Carrier Strike Groups and numbered fleets to effectively engage and survive a wide range of rapidly evolving threats.
Abraham Lincoln is underway conducting training after successful completion of carrier incremental availability.
Defence Secretary Sir Michael Fallon has unveiled an ambitious new National Shipbuilding Strategy which meets the challenge set by Sir John Parker last November and sets out plans for the first batch of Type 31e frigates.
Sir John Parker’s independent report into British naval shipbuilding proposed far-reaching recommendations to transform the UK maritime industry and boost the prosperity of regions, shipyards and maritime supply chains across the country.
Today’s Strategy sees the Government accept Sir John’s recommendations and step up to what he called a prospective ‘renaissance’ in British shipbuilding. Building on the Government’s industrial strategy, it outlines an ambition to transform the procurement of naval ships, make the UK’s maritime industry more competitive, grow the Royal Navy fleet by the 2030s, export British ships overseas, and boost innovation, skills, jobs, and productivity across the UK.
It announces the government’s plan to procure new Type 31e General Purpose Frigates. A price cap has been set of no more than £250M each for the first batch of five frigates. In line with standing UK policy on warships they will be built in the UK. They could be built in a way which could see them shared between yards and assembled at a central hub. The first ships are set to be in service by 2023. Shipyards will be encouraged to work with global partners to ensure the vessel is competitive on the export market.
Defence Secretary Sir Michael Fallon said:
This new approach will lead to more cutting-edge ships for the growing Royal Navy that will be designed to maximise exports and be attractive to navies around the world.
Backed up by a commitment to spend billions on new ships, our plan will help boost jobs, skills, and growth in shipyards and the supply chain across the UK.
The Strategy sets out the government’s commitment to work with industry to reinvigorate and maximise export success. The Type 31e will be designed to meet the needs of the Royal Navy and with the export market in mind from the beginning. This could see industry’s customer become not only the Royal Navy but for the navies of Britain’s allies and partners.
The MOD is committed to new ships for the Royal Navy through its rising budget and £178bn equipment plan. In July, at BAE’s Govan shipyard, the Defence Secretary cut steel for the first of eight Type 26 frigates, HMS Glasgow. The £3.7 billion contract for the first three, the largest for naval ships this decade, will secure hundreds of high skilled jobs on the Clyde until 2035 and hundreds more in the supply chain across the UK.
Sir John Parker said:
I am very impressed by the courage that the Secretary of State has shown – and the Government – in adopting my recommendations, which were very extensive, and will change the shape of naval shipbuilding over the country in the future.
The next challenge is to come up with a world-leading design; one that can satisfy the needs of the Royal Navy and the export market. We have the capability to do that, the will is there and it is a tremendous opportunity for UK shipbuilding. I see no reason why industry will not rise to that challenge. There is an incredible keenness from around the country, from Scotland to Merseyside, to the South West and over to Belfast.
The option to build the Type 31e frigates in blocks reflects how the biggest ship ever built for the Royal Navy, the 65,000-tonne HMS Queen Elizabeth, was constructed. The aircraft carrier was built in blocks by over 10,000 people in six main British cities. She was then assembled in Rosyth, before commencing sea trials in June and arriving in her home port of Portsmouth last month.
Her sister ship HMS Prince of Wales, built in the same way, is also now structurally complete and will be officially named in a ceremony on 8 September. This method has also been tried and tested on the UK’s new polar research ship, RRS Sir David Attenborough, with shipyards across the country collaborating in the block build.
The Strategy is an important part of the government’s broader industrial strategy that focuses on increasing economic growth across the country and investing in a more skilled workforce.
The Government will work together with industry to provide the certainty and support the need to become internationally competitive. Such a move will not only boost the British economy and jobs, but it will also help to create a more stable and well-protected world.
LONDON, Sept 2 (Bernama) — British Prime Minister Theresa May has already stirred up new concerns as she headed for home on Friday, wrapping up her three-day Japan tour, China’s Xinhua news agency reported.
At the time when Downing Street needed to reassure East Asia post-Brexit certainty, it was instead signalling uncertainty.
On her trip to Japan, she agreed with her Japanese counterpart, Shinzo Abe, to the deployment of HMS Argyll to the region next year as well as joint training exercises between troops of the two countries.
In her speech Thursday in Tokyo, May said, “We have highlighted our opposition to any actions on the South and East China Seas likely to increase tension.”
People can not help but wondering: how come sending an aircraft carrier by an outsider to the region does not count as an action which increases tension?
The latest promise the British government made to Japan would end up further complicating the situation in the already troubled region and also inviting uncertainty to the country’s relations with China.
The British government’s latest decision could be viewed as another expression of its stubborn determination to meddle in disputes involving China.
Earlier, British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson claimed Britain would send its new aircraft carriers “on a freedom of navigation operation” in the South China Sea. Defense Secretary Michael Fallon echoed that London “won’t be constrained by China from sailing through the region.”
The way the May cabinet woos Japan has created an awkward situation. While it was attempting to demonstrate its closeness to Japan, a major investor in Britain, UK irritated China, an equally and increasingly more important partner.
In the name of security cooperation, Tokyo and London are joining hands. But their cooperation will only lead to some insecurity in the region, simply because this kind of collaboration is not constructive at all.
By doing so, Japan is inviting an outside military force to intervene in the region, which is more of a provocation than cooperation.
In essence, the bilateral cooperation should not be at the cost of sacrificing the security of a third country, in this case China. Otherwise, it can only backfire.
Getting underway from Naval Base Plymouth on Tuesday, helicopter carrier HMS Ocean started her final deployment as a commissioned Royal Navy ship.
The fleet flagship – a role that will be taken by the new aircraft carrier HMS Queen Elizabeth – will be joining NATO’s Standing Maritime Group 2 in the Mediterranean as flagship.
HMS Ocean and her crew are expected to return home in December.
Currently the Royal Navy’s sole helicopter carrier, Ocean is set to be decommissioned next year and her role will be taken up by the HMS Queen Elizabeth.
Commissioned in October 1995, the 202-meter long HMS Ocean replaced HMS Bulwark as fleet flagship in June 2015. In her role as a helicopter carrier and amphibious assault ship, Ocean is designed to deliver troops by helicopter or by landing craft.
After her decommissioning was announced, Brazilian media reports rumored the HMS Ocean could be sold to the Brazilian Navy for a “reasonable price”.
The UK defense ministry earlier said that ‘a number of options’ were still in play regarding the future of HMS Ocean adding that it was too early to talk about specifics.
Marine Corps Gen. Joe Dunford used his invite to the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in Scotland to visit British bases in the area and speak with senior United Kingdom defense leaders on a wide range of defense topics.
The chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff was invited months ago by his U.K. counterpart, British Chief of Defense Staff Air Chief Marshal Stuart Peach, to visit the tattoo and take the salute from the British units participating in the event.
“I didn’t realize how big the tattoo was when I accepted,” Dunford said during an interview on a flight back to Washington. “I learned.”
The tattoo ceremony is held at the esplanade of Edinburgh Castle the month of August, and more than 210,000 attend the event with about 100 million viewing the event on TV, according to news reports.
Earlier in the day, Dunford met with British Defense Secretary Michael Fallon and Peach to discuss a full range of issues from the South Asia strategy to the situation in East Asia – specifically North Korea’s nuclear and missile programs.
“Both from my trip and the [positive] rhetoric that is coming out of Beijing is that the economic and political pressure is having an effect,” Dunford said. “It remains to be seen if the campaign will be successful, but there are indications that things are heading in the right direction.”
Chinese officials told North Korean leader Kim Jong Un that if he launched a missile toward Guam, he was on his own. China surprised the world by voting for sanctions against North Korea in the U.N. Security Council and now appears to be enforcing those sanctions, Dunford said.
Still, it is “much too early,” he said. “You can’t measure enforcement sanctions in weeks, but again the rhetoric has been positive from Beijing.”
Dunford also discussed opportunities for continued military-to-military engagement between the United States and the U.K. “We obviously have a very strong relationship with the U.K., and they are with us in Iraq and Afghanistan,” Dunford said.The chairman visited the future HMS Prince of Wales – a Royal Navy aircraft carrier being built in Rosyth, Scotland. The British ship will field American-built F-35B Lightning II aircraft.
“Any future fight is going to require a coalition, and interoperability is a critical and fundamental element of alliance and coalition warfare,” Dunford said. “This reflects the close nature of the alliance and bodes well for the interoperability.”
The chairman received positive feedback from the British leaders on the new strategy for South Asia announced earlier this week.
“It is fair to say that all of the nations that are currently contributing to the Resolute Support Mission, and certainly all of the nations who have been there since the very beginning like the U.K., … have received the strategy well,” Dunford said.
Coalition allies tell Dunford they believe the conditions-based approach is the right approach, “and that it will allow us all to have a longer-term horizon to assure our Afghan partners of our continuing support,” he said.
The strategy helps Afghan President Ashraf Ghani with his four-year plan to deal with corruption issues and economic development. “Instead of a one-year-at-a-time campaign, we can start to take a longer term approach and have confidence that the resources necessary to implement this longer term approach will be there,” the chairman said.
In addition to the British allies, Dunford spoke with other NATO allies, the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee, Czech Gen. Petr Pavel and other close partners. He noted that Army Gen. Curtis M. Scaparrotti, Eucom’s commander and NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe, has also spoken to allies, as has Army Gen. Joe Votel, the U.S. Central Command chief.
“We’ve touched a lot of people this week and there has been universal support for the approach we are taking,” the chairman said.
Ahead of her arrival into Portsmouth, Royal Navy ship HMS Queen Elizabeth saluted luxury cruise liner the Queen Elizabeth on the water, so we wondered how do the two giants compare and which would you rather travel on?
How Big Are They?
HMS Queen Elizabeth is, alongside the second vessel in the class, the HMS Prince of Wales, the largest warship ever constructed for the British Navy.
At 280 meters in length, 70m in width and 56m in height, this mammoth ship weighs in at a whopping 65,000 tons. That’s more than the weight of 10,000 African elephants!
Even so, the luxury liner beats the Naval warship on this front- with 12 decks, the 293-meter-long cruise ship weighs nearly 100,000 tonnes- 90,901 to be exact.
How Much Did They Cost?
With stats like that, it’s no wonder that the Navy’s crown jewel came at a cost.
The project was expected to cost around £3.5billion, but it was later announced that the figure would almost double, ending at £6.2billion.
The Queen Elizabeth cruise liner might almost seem cheap in comparison, owned by Carnival Corporation and PLC, the liner comes in at a mere £350 million, despite its luxury design.
Who’s On Board?
Whilst the HMS Queen Elizabeth is capable of transporting up to 700 crew at any one time, this number could theoretically be doubled depending on the number of planes onboard.
Each carrier of this size can, however, hold 36 planes and four helicopters.
In comparison, the luxury cruise liner the Queen Elizabeth can hold between 2077 – 2503 passengers and up to 900 crew, but unfortunately no planes or helicopters.
What Do They Eat?
In accordance with military guidelines, personnel serving on operations and exercises get a minimum of 4,000 calories a day, the recommended daily allowance for those undertaking strenuous activities.
A typical meal on board the ship might consist of chicken curry, a Cornish pasty and a chocolate sauce covered chocolate cake.
It is not bad, but not exactly gourmet.
Unsurprisingly, the QE comes out on top on the food front.
Passengers have a choice of 11 restaurants and cafés, with offerings including roast breast of grouse, lobster newberg with truffle scented rice, and white chocolate soufflé.
How Are They Entertained?
With gyms, internet, plenty of social areas and of course the satellite TV provided by BFBS, there’s plenty to do on board a typical naval ship.
And the fun doesn’t stop when the ship comes to port.
This is usually taken as an opportunity to play more traditional sports like football, rugby, netball, often as a way to bond with other navies and locals in the area.
The Queen Elizabeth liner certainly isn’t short of entertainment.
There’s luxury shops, dance classes, spas, music and even a full-size theatre!
But we highly doubt that there’d be the same team spirit and camaraderie found on this floating hotel as on one of our finest Royal Navy vessels.
The countdown is now on for the return of UK Carrier Strike. TIM ROBINSON reports from BAE Systems Warton on the behind the scenes activity to make the Lockheed Martin F-35B ready for the Royal Navy’s new Queen Elizabeth class.
In just over a year’s time, one lucky UK test pilot is set to perform a historic flight – the first landing of a new fighter aircraft on a brand-new aircraft carrier – a double first that is a major milestone. “This is the SuperBowl of flight test – a once in a lifetime opportunity,” enthuses RAF F-35B test pilot Squadron Leader Andy Edgell. The majestic entrance of HMS Queen Elizabeth into Portsmouth earlier this week and the pride and excitement surrounding it, is an indicator of the importance that the first F-35B landing on the carrier will carry.
Indeed, while next year it will be eight years since the retirement of the iconic Harrier, you have to go back over 50 years to 1963 when Hawker test pilot Bill Bedford made the first jet fighter vertical landing on an aircraft carrier on HMS Ark Royal in the P.1127. The rest, as they say, is history with the Harrier, Sea Harrier and AV-8 being adopted for shipborne operations by the UK, USMC, Italy, India, Spain and Thailand.
Fast forward to 2017 and Edgell (UK MoD First of Class Flight Trials (FOCFT) Lead Test Pilot) is one of the UK F-35B test pilots embedded into the JSF Integrated Test Force at the US Navy’s Paxutent River flight test centre in Maryland.
His role in the US, (like his colleagues Cdr Steve Crockatt (RN and Team Leader) Cdr Nath Gray (RN), Sqn Ldr Ben Hullah (RAF) and BAE Systems’ own Pete ‘Wizzer’ Wilson) as a developmental test pilot is to define the edges of the envelope, investigate handling and focus on safety.
Edgell stresses that this developmental testing (higher, faster and, occasional, slowest) is separate from the F-35 work undertaken from the RAF’s 17(R) Sqn at Edwards AFB that concentrates on weapon employment, combat tactics and how to use the fighter operationally.
This team (along with UK engineers, maintainers and support personnel from the RN, RAF and industry) have been busy this year conducting the second phase of land-based F-35B ski-jump testing at Pax River – a critical stage in proving that the F-35B is ready to go to sea in 2018. Over 70% of the ski-jumps needed have now been completed with the team working on the toughest challenges, such as maximum stores asymmetry and crosswinds (One drawback of the land-based ski jump testing at Pax River is that the team have to wait for the wind conditions to co-operate for the correct speed and direction.)
These pilots are also tasked with developing and de-risking the new Shipborne Rolling Vertical Landing (SRVL) technique which will allow higher bring-back of stores in hot climates than the traditional hover. This uses a straight-in approach with the aircraft slowing from about 140kt to approximately 60kt over the carrier’s stern – with the aircraft still getting some aerodynamic lift from the wings. As well as allowing higher bring-back weights, SRVL also has side benefits, such as reduced wear and tear on the LiftFan and less damage on the same landing deck ‘spot’ from the powerful rear-nozzle exhaust.
While some critics worry that it could be more workload-intensive in bad weather or a fouled deck, others describe it as a ‘doddle’ in the sim. One F-35B pilot is sanguine about the technique, pointing out that a short, slow landing is nothing new for land-based Harriers and observes: “In fact, if we were still operating Harriers now, we’d probably be using it”. It will thus be for Edgell, Wizzer and the rest of the team to prove this concept at sea.
STOVL comes home
Then, in the fourth quarter of 2018, off the east coast of the US will be the main event – the first F-35B at sea testing aboard the Queen Elizabeth. Edgell says that four pilots will be assigned to the task, with two aircraft to be used over two four-week periods with a break in between. With a heavy flying schedule, a break in the middle will be welcome for pilots, engineers and deck crew to keep concentration at the highest. He expects that, after getting to grips with the ship and carrier qualifications for the pilots, the first four weeks will see ski-jump take-offs and vertical landings during the day/night and with the deck dry and wet to get comfortable.
The next phase in the second four-week period, will hopefully see the SRVL testing for real, as well as more challenging testing, including stores, asymmetric loads and high-deck motion STOVL operations. Inert stores will be used in these trials, as there is no requirement to conduct the testing with live weapons or do firings “We’ve already proved live weapons will fall off this jet” says Edgell. Following these two trials next year, a third development period is scheduled some nine months later in 2019.
While this testing will mark a milestone in the RN’s next-generation Carrier Strike capability, earlier in 2018 will also see the first UK F-35Bs with 617 Sqn roar into RAF Marham. This opens a new stealth chapter in the Services history and, appropriately enough, the RAF’s 100th anniversary year. Last month (July) saw another UK aircraft (BK-11) delivered to 617 at MCAS Beaufort, with the squadron expected to have 14 by the end of this year. In another sign of a transition to a front-line operational squadron, the first four UK ab-initio pilots, direct from fast-jet training at RAF Valley have just joined the squadron. Initial Operating Capability is expected at RAF Marham by the end of 2018.
These, the final steps in a journey that started many decades ago with the question: ‘What replaces the Harrier?’ and has passed through projects like JAST, CALF, X-35/X-32 and now the JSF are thus nearing the finish line and will see the RN, RAF, MoD and industry working together to deliver the UK’s new potent carrier strike in around 2020.
Honing vertical landings in Warton
Supporting the UK developmental flight test team at Pax River is BAE Systems, where some 50+ years of Harrier experience is being brought together to make the F-35B the easiest and safest VTOL fighter ever to operate from a ship. Just opened earlier in March, BAE Systems F-35/QEC simulation facility at Warton, Lancashire is a key part in testing and de-risking fixed wing naval operations. Simulation and modelling is highly critical for the Queen Elizabeth and F-35B, not just because of the increased fidelity and processing power available but also with the UK having been out of the fixed-wing carrier game for seven years – nothing and no detail too small is being taken for granted. For example, CFD modelling of wind interaction around the distinctive twin islands is incorporated in the simulator.
The most challenging area to model, notes BAE’s David Atkinson in charge of the new facility, is in the F-35Bs transition phase between conventional wing-borne and vertical flight.
BAE says that the £2m facility, which includes a moving platform F-35 cockpit, dome visual system and a simulated QEC FLYCO (Flying Control), is its most sophisticated flight simulator yet. It uses 64 processors and 1TB RAM and allows test pilots to practice, train and rehearse safely before they even get to the ship. The inclusion of a FLYCO in the room next door also allows Royal Navy LSO (Landing Signal Officers) to experience, train and develop CONOPS in controlling F-35B launch and recovery operations. Cameras give a gyro-stabilised view of pilots’ approach with gradient and centreline guides marked. BAE is also trialling video gaming virtual reality headsets to allow LSOs to immerse themselves in a virtual FLYCO and see exactly what they would see onboard the real ship.
So, what is the value of this facility to highly experienced test pilots, some of whom have already taken the F-35B to sea, albeit on US Navy assault ships? Says Sqn Ldr Edgell: “As testers you are inherently cynical. However good the modelling is, we have to do it for real. However, it builds confidence and tells where we need to focus our efforts. It also potentially allows us to take bigger steps towards the edge of the envelope.”
Hands on with the F-35B
So, what is the F-35B like to fly? Thanks to the pioneering work of UK’s DERA (now DSTL/QinetiQ) VAAC Harrier testbeds and test pilots like Justin Paines and John Farley in developing advanced FBW software for VTOL aircraft – it is extremely simple. Whereas the Jedi-like skills are needed to control the Harrier in the hover requires movement of throttle, nozzle control and stick and has been likened to ‘balancing on the top of a pencil while needing three hands’, the F-35B’s fly-by-wire controls are just a sidestick and throttle HOTAS – with the flight computers doing all the hard work. (It is noteworthy that the UK is the only country after the US to have its own lines of code in in the F-35 software).
To assist pilots coming into land, there are two velocity vectors – a traditional one, and a ship-shaped one – showing where the ship will be. The ship’s speed is also entered into the flight management computer via the touchscreen display.
Approaching the ship from behind at around 170kt and 500ft, once at 200ft the pilot hits the ‘brake’ deceleration button and the aircraft begins slowing and transitioning to a hover, with the LiftFan engaging and the rear nozzle swivelling down for vertical flight. Once slowed down, the pilot can swing to the left side of the ship. The aircraft’s flight computers now cleverly match the ship’s speed, with the pilot pushing forward on the control sidestick (or inceptor) to go down. At 100ft and about a wingspan across from the deck, the pilot is thus ready to transition sideways over the deck, with fine hovering control being provided by the moving rear nozzle, LiftFan and the STOVL roll jets at the tips of the wings. At this point, with the flight controls engaged and the aircraft happily matching speed with the ship, the pilot can even take his (or her) hands off the controls – a move that would most likely be suicidal in the Harrier for the average squadron pilot.
Hitting another thumb switch on the HOTAS throttle engages a translational controller mode, enabling the pilot to slide across in the hover and line up with the centreline. Once in position – it is a case of pushing forward on the sidestick to a software-controlled stop to descend and put the aircraft firmly on the deck. At this point, control of the engine thrust and vertical motion has passed to the right hand, rather than the left hand – which on the first occasion is slightly disconcerting to push full forward on what is normally a pitch control, some 50ft above a deck.
Those raised on Call of Duty Xbox controllers will have no problems. Feet on the brakes and the aircraft lands itself. Effectively with these flight controls you are flying an aeroplane that cannot stall and where intuitive pull back/go up and push forward/go down still work – even when hovering. Says BAE: “The control philosophy is such that the left-hand commands go-faster / go-slower whilst the right-hand commands the aircraft to go-up / go-down and go-left / go-right. Each hand commands a response in the same axis in both wing-borne and jet-borne flight.” It is not quite the ‘take me home and land the aircraft automatically coffee bar button’ that legendary Harrier test pilot John Farley often joked about as something that a future VTOL fighter would need, but it is close.
Taking off is even simpler. Line up on the centreline for the ramp. Hold feet on brakes – move throttle to detent and then to full and it will take-off, with just rudder pedals used to keep on track. No sidestick control movements are needed – although pilots will guard the control stick with a hand.
Interestingly, for those wondering about the SRVL and stopping a heavy aircraft without an arrestor wire on a short deck, this correspondent found that the carrier’s deck proved remarkably ‘sticky’ with a fair bit of throttle needed to get the aircraft moving. BAE says the modelling in the simulator includes dry, wet and flooded decks – and it has also carried out friction studies with F-35 tyres and the deck material.
The UK – a vital part of the global F-35 supply chain
But it is not just in-flight test and simulation where the UK is deeply involved with F-35. Down the road from Warton at BAE Systems’ factory in Samlesbury is evidence of the huge industrial and supply chain involvement in this programme – with the company machining and building aft fuselages, horizontal and vertical tails for almost every F-35 made. While all eyes were on Portsmouth earlier this week, Wednesday also saw a significant industrial milestone passed for the F-35 – with the 318th rear fuselage section produced at Samlesbury rolled off the production. This represents just 10% of the final global production total.
Inside BAE’s Samlesbury facility, a highly automated, cutting-edge facility building and assembling precision components for F-35 the sheer scale of the programme is apparent. After a slow start Samlesbury is now in the middle of production ramp-up, as the F-35 programme goes into high-gear – supplying assembly lines in Fort Worth, Texas, Italy and now Japan. This year it will ship 92 aft fuselages, 78 horizontal tails and 83 vertical tails (other facilities in Australia and Canada building the difference in HT/VT and aft fuselages). This represents a 30% increase in the production rate, with another 30% increase in 2018.
This is just part of the UK’s involvement in the gigantic global F-35 programme – which eventually could see over 3,000 aircraft produced. As well as the aft empennage and wingfold for the F-35C carrier variant, BAE provides the EW system, HOTAS (or active inceptors) and vehicle management computer, as well as being the lead design authority for the fuel system, crew escape system and life support, with 1,525 people directly employed by BAE on the F-35. Looking wider, it is estimated that the F-35 will sustain some 25,000 UK jobs in 500 companies when it hits peak production rate in 2020. These range from big names like Rolls-Royce (LiftFan), Martin Baker (ejection seat) MBDA/Raytheon (UK weapons integration) to smaller SMEs.
All told, some 15% by value of the F-35 is made by UK companies. Additionally, because the UK invested early in the programme as a Tier 1 partner, it also receives royalties for every FMS F-35 sold (eg Israel and South Korea).
A hidden benefit – enhanced competitiveness
While the sheer scale of the F-35 programme will keep British companies busy for the next 30 or more years producing parts and systems, there could another useful spin off – increased global competitiveness.
For example, a machining subcontractor for BAE Systems, Hyde Aero Products based in Stockport, notes how its $7m investment in precision machining in 2006 needed to satisfy the stringent requirements of F-35, means that it is now a step or “half-step” ahead for meeting its other customers’ requirements for civil aerospace, such as Airbus. UK companies and SMEs involved in F-35 thus have all had to raise their game in precision, quality controls and even cybersecurity (and continue to do so) while driving down the cost. These exacting standards for a military stealth fighter thus may bring wider benefits for UK companies, improving their overall competitiveness on the aerospace global marketplace. The F-35’s massive production scale also means that these companies have the opportunity to hone their manufacturing skills and invest heavily for the future, in comparison perhaps with other products or aircraft where production runs are extremely low.
This is particularly important post-Brexit, when UK aerospace firms in the Airbus supply chain may have to fight harder and demonstrate enhanced levels of competitiveness to win (or retain) work on new programmes.
With Britain set to be the home for F-35 avionics MRO in Europe, sustainment and upgrades will also be key opportunities over the long life of the programme. Steve Simm, from UK defence lab DSTL, which has been involved from even before F-35 in giving independent technical evaluations, airworthiness and projects like VAAC, notes that there are three areas that might offer opportunities for the UK in future F-35 upgrades – sensors, all round survivability and interoperability. Can the UK exploit some of its aerospace and defence technology innovation to keep the F-35 at the very tip of spear over the rest of what could be a long service career?
Rough water ahead?
This is not to say that it will all be plain sailing for the UK and F-35. Questions still remain about the affordability of the full buy of 138 F-35s – particularly given that being priced in US dollars means that the jet is getting more expensive for Britain – with the MoD spending on the jet rising by 10% in the past year. Extra hidden costs, such as 200 early aircraft that need to be modified and re-worked to raise them to a common standard, also threaten to increase the price for customers.
There are also concerns about the connectivity and networking of UK F-35Bs and whether enough attention has been paid to allow it to share the vast amounts of data outside of its own circle of other Lightning IIs. Crowsnest, for example, the organic Merlin AEW is a critical part of the carrier group’s air wing and vital in exploiting the F-35’s sensor fusion. These communication and data networks are perhaps less ‘sexy’ than flying hardware itself, but all as important to get right and invest in.
Some worry too that, in the pursuit of its long-awaited two huge flagships, the RN has hollowed itself out and that it now so short of frigates and destroyers it is unable to perform even basic missions. Others argue that the rise of supersonic cruise missiles have now rendered the flatdeck obsolete. Meanwhile, some critics point that while the F-35 is certainly lucrative to UK plc, it does little to create onshore IP for Britain.
Other news might be less important, but still make for embarrassing headlines. It is ironic that a football stadium in London has reportedly more effective anti-drone jamming defences than the nation’s flagship – even if the carrier was not at sea at the time. There is also likely to negative publicity if, for example, the first operational detachment of F-35Bs on HMS Queen Elizabeth turns out to be USMC F-35Bs – despite the strong historical links between the US Marine and UK Harrier forces and cross-decking in the past.
Worth the sticker price?
Worries about the rising cost have plagued the programme from the beginning (and indeed are not unique to F-35). However, the US lead, slick marketing and opaque claims of this fighter’s secret capabilities has fuelled criticism that the jet is an expensive white elephant.
Of course, until the F-35 has blooded itself in actual combat, the jury is still out and it is difficult for external observers to judge some of the claims and counter-claims. While Lockheed Martin’s publicity machine has boasted of 10-to-1 kill ratios in classified simulations, the results of the F-35’s combat effectiveness in mock battles are now leaking out into the real world, as the jet matures, more pilots fly it and it takes part in more joint exercises.
One example – earlier this year at the first outing of the USAF F-35As at Red Flag saw one morning where a glitch in the cryptography codes meant that no F-35As could fly that day. Having raised the simulated threat levels to give the F-35As a peer-level challenge, the result, says LM, was that flying without F-35As that day, the rest of the entire ‘legacy’ Blue Force was massacred outright.
Other Red Flag exercises with the USMC F-35B also are backing up these results and hint, that if anything, that estimated kill ratios in favour of the Lightning II may have been underestimated. It is worth noting, that Red Flag and similar exercises are designed to provide pilots with the most challenging threat scenarios that (short of aliens invading) can be imagined. In the past, pilots have reported that, apart from enemies with live weapons, actual combat seemed to them ‘easier’ that the final punishing Red Flag scenario.
Today’s sophisticated PC simulations, such as CMANO, (though using unclassified data), can also help explain why, being on the receiving end of a stealth fighter is (in the words of one player) like ‘being in a dark room with a tentacled monster while it decides which orifice to explore’.
However, it is important to remember that stealth is not just a LO airframe but a combination of aircraft and tactics. It is here where the UK’s unique access and position, (not only in the industrial, flight test and development areas) will pay off, in helping to shape the tactics that will enable operators of the F-35 to dominate tomorrows battlespace. As new UK Lightning Force Commander, Air Commodore David Bradshaw, RAF observes: “We have played a fundamental role within the F-35 programme, the world’s largest single defence programme. As the only Level 1 partner we have had incredible influence and access”.
Finally, there is the changed geopolitical environment that the UK and other partner air forces now find themselves in. A decade ago, with a focus on COIN and Afghanistan, it may well have been a valid question as to why Britain needed an expensive stealth fighter to strike an enemy without an air force. Today, that certainty has changed and peer and near-peer threats and competitions are evolving fast – along with the proliferation of advanced radars, SAMs and fighter weapon systems. The Baltics, Ukraine, Syria, the South China Sea, Korea and even the Arctic are now actual and potential flashpoints of the future. Who knows where the HMS Queen Elizabeth, PoW and their F-35s will sail in the future in the next half century?
The return of Carrier Strike marks a new chapter for the UK. Queen Elizabeth and Prince of Wales will give the country a multirole floating airbase, able to project power, deploy transport and attack helicopters and operate fixed wing aircraft – and, most probably one day, UAVs.
While the F-35 is by itself impressive as the first exportable ‘fifth generation’ stealth fighter – the F-35B should be recognised as a British engineering marvel. It is a supersonic stealth strike fighter that goes to sea – all enabled by British developed and designed STOVL technology, flight controls and the R-R LiftFan.
Some might argue, that the B model is the runt of the litter, with a reduced range and payload compared to As or Cs. However, it is notable that Israel, Singapore and Taiwan (as well as the UK, USMC and Italy who are acquiring the B) have all been mentioned as having an interest in the STOVL model. In this age of precision missiles able to easily target runways and hangars with almost 100% accuracy, could the ultra-flexible B variant one day, be the only jet fighter that a country is able to operate from small pieces of concrete while other airbases are filled with smoking wreckage?
The road has been a long one and is not over yet but, finally Great Britain is set to return to its place as a foremost exponent of naval air power. The UK, which in the post-WW2 era invented the carrier angled deck and landing mirror – making jet carrier aviation at sea viable, along with the iconic jump jet which provided a flexibility never seen before, is thus on the final circuit and approach to Carrier Strike. Indeed, it needs to be remembered that smaller, cheaper Harrier and Invincible class were originally consolation prizes for the supersonic, radar-equipped Hawker P.1154 jump-jet and the RN’s CVA-01 super carrier being axed in the 1960s. Half a century later, with F-35B and Queen Elizabeth, the wheel has come full circle.
One would like to imagine, that a certain famous Scottish naval test pilot, now sadly no longer with us, will be watching that first landing with a twinkle in his eye.
HMS Queen Elizabeth is being described as “a demonstration of British military power and commitment to a bigger global role”.
Britain’s biggest-ever warship has arrived at its base in Portsmouth for the first time.
Hundreds of people lined Portsmouth Harbour to welcome HMS Queen Elizabeth, an aircraft carrier which cost more than £3bn to build.
The 280m (918ft) vessel set sail in June from the Rosyth dockyard where it was built, and since then has been undergoing tests at sea.
Technically, it remains a civilian rather than a military ship until it is commissioned later this year.
It is also an aircraft carrier which does not yet have fixed-wing aircraft on board. F-35B Lightning II jets are still being built and tested in the US, and the ship won’t be fully operational until 2020.
Those on board and watching from the shore were treated to two separate flypasts of Royal Navy helicopters, the first featuring a Sea King, two Mk2 Merlins and two Mk3 Merlins, which were then joined by two Hawk jets for the second.
Defence Secretary Sir Michael Fallon said: “She is Britain’s statement to the world: a demonstration of British military power and our commitment to a bigger global role.
“The thousands of people across the UK who have played a part in building her and her sister ship, HMS Prince of Wales, should be immensely proud as our future flagship enters Portsmouth.”
The behemoth aircraft carrier sailed into the Solent before heading into Portsmouth, where, at its narrowest point, there was less than 20m (66ft) clearance on each side.
The band of the Royal Marines played as the ship slowly navigated into the harbour, which has had to be dredged to make room.
HMS Queen Elizabeth manoeuvred towards a new extended and reinforced jetty under her own power before tugs nudged her gently into position.
An 820ft (250m) exclusion zone, enforced by armed police in small boats, meant the port was effectively closed to the flotilla of boats that had turned out to greet the ship.
Lt Cdr Neil Twigg, a fast jet pilot responsible for integrating the F-35 fighter jet into the carrier group, said: “We are very ready, there is still a lot more work to be done, the aircraft is still going through its testing programme in America and the ship has still some more sea trials but we are on the right track.”
But Admiral Chris Parry, a former senior Royal Navy officer, told Sky News that HMS Queen Elizabeth offers “real military power” to deter rogue states – as well as terrorist groups such as Islamic State.